Travel Writing and Ireland, 1760-1860: Culture, History, Politics

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News Archive Check out the news of yesterday. Yet there was one less likely destination that nevertheless attracted large numbers of visitors from onwards: Ireland. There were no obvious aesthetic, cultural, or antiquarian attractions comparable to Italy or France, both of which attracted numerous travellers in this period, hungry for intellectual stimulation.

In the nineteenth century, in particular the latter half, other non-European destinations came into focus, with North America emerging as a new traveller destination that offered aesthetic and indeed athletic challenges unavailable in Ireland. The rugged terrain of Canada or the American West, where men could pit themselves against the wilderness, or accompany trappers and miners for a brief experience of elemental life, was not part of the Irish itinerary.

Yet still visitors came in increasing numbers throughout the century, to a country with less obvious attractions. Nevertheless, travellers, especially British travellers, flocked to Irish shores in increasing numbers from the middle of the eighteenth century onwards, and the fact that the majority of these visitors successfully published their accounts suggests a growing appetite for books on Ireland and the Irish in this period. So what drew these travellers to Ireland, given the lack of obvious touristic attractions?

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There are many factors, the most important of which, as will be seen in subsequent chapters, was a perceived lack of information on the country and its inhabitants amongst the British. This epistemological vacuum became a matter of grave concern, reiterated by writer after writer, although the root of their anxieties altered over time. From to , travel accounts focus on the necessity to know Ireland, and bemoan the fact that she is so little comprehended.

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Yet this articulation is itself only a partial truth: many travellers saw Ireland as a potentially corrupt, and corrupting, element within the body politic, whose control demanded total knowledge. The integration of the country within the United Kingdom after required that she be as well known, and as tractable, as the Home Counties. For some writers, there was also a sense of shame that Ireland, as an integral part of the new political structure, should be so impoverished and economically underdeveloped.

They travelled with an almost evangelical desire to improve the country and its inhabitants, and raise it, as they hoped, to a comparable level of civilisation with England, Scotland, and Wales. By the mid-nineteenth century, these early optimistic texts had largely given way to more sombre assessments, and a sense of despair that Ireland should apparently be so resistant to improvement.

There were other factors that made Ireland a more attractive tourist destination in this period.

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Travellers could move about with relative ease and, despite periodic political unrest, with relative safety compared to other foreign destinations. The country was largely English speaking, with an excellent postal system that made communication with Britain easy. Indeed, as the century progressed, the mail boat carried not just post but more travellers across the Irish sea, bearing letters of introduction to individuals in Ireland who would, it was hoped, give them hospitality and insights to the country and its inhabitants. Women travellers featured prominently throughout the century, liberated from many of the restrictions facing them in other countries, Introduction 3 specifically because of these comforting factors.

Ireland offered them a chance to be active agents, undertaking independent forays in the manner of men, but without attracting the criticism or anxiety about appropriate gender roles that inevitably arose in other countries.

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I have chosen a variety of texts for examination, out of a huge field. Although all are linked by a common set of criteria — most were written by British-based authors who visited the country with the specific intention of writing up their experience — the motivation and intent behind each was often quite different. For example, some writers such as John Hervey Ashworth composed his narrative with the intention of attracting settlers and investors to the country. As such, his encounters with the inhabitants are relentlessly upbeat, and the only conversations to be recorded are those with individuals who testify to the economic potential of the country.

Others, such as the Reverend James Hall, are concerned with comprehending the peculiar customs and habits of the Irish, and he prioritises those meetings when, often in disguise, he manages to extract information on religion, superstition, and folk-practice. In some cases, the thrust of the travelogue was defined by some extraordinary event.

Those individuals who toured Ireland between and were drawn by the Great Famine, and they recorded the dreadful suffering and the many attempts to alleviate it throughout the country. Post-Famine travellers shared a common desire to assess the potential of the country for re-settlement, now that a significant proportion of the population had been lost to starvation and emigration. In other words, each travel narrative was a response to, or attempt to understand, quite specific political or economic circumstances, rather than a mere record of wanderings by various routes across the country.

This book is divided into four chapters.

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The first consists largely of an engagement with the writings of two pre-Union authors, John Bush and Arthur Young, whose texts give an indication of the variety of forms the travelogue may take. Both writers are reflective of a new development in travel writing: the Home Tour. For a variety of reasons discussed in the chapter, travel in continental Europe became more difficult and less popular in the mid- to late eighteenth century.

Partly as a consequence of this, travellers began to focus upon hitherto neglected regions at home, and upon Scotland and Ireland in particular, and a new body of literature emerged that documented explorations of the English Lake District, the Scottish Highlands, and of parts of Ireland. Bush is a curious writer, in both senses of the word.

Bush sees wonder everywhere in Ireland, and is a rare example of a commentator on the country who is relatively unencumbered by preconceptions of the Irish. His text mixes a highly developed aesthetic sensibility with a dispassionate political perspective, allowing him to move seamlessly from an appreciation of the lakes at Killarney, to a critique of neglectful landlords.

Indeed, his openness to experience, be it an encounter with the inhabitants of a hovel in Co. Wicklow, or a meditation on the immensity of Irish bogs, marks him out from other travellers, whose reactions to the country are rather more guarded. Although he travelled a little over a decade after Bush, his account is a much more focussed and detailed affair, and one that presents a good deal of specific information upon the country and its inhabitants.

He is a committed moderniser, a champion of progressive farming methods, and as such an individual who sought to improve the country. But one also sees in Young the start of a process that was to be continued by successive generations of travel writers to the country: the ceaseless drive to acquire information on Ireland and the Irish. Before the Act of Union, writers are concerned largely with the fact that a lack of specific information has allowed for the proliferation of secret societies, and illicit political movements.

The Anglo-Irish relationship, in one form or another, lies at the heart of the travel narratives discussed in this book.

Travel writing and Ireland, 1760-1860: culture, history, politics

In Chapter 2, I discuss texts written in the aftermath of the Act of Union of , texts that are, on the surface at least, optimistic about the future of the country as a potential constitutional equal. Yet despite Introduction 5 the integrationist rhetoric, there remains an underlying unease about the country that acts as a counter-melody to the dominant tune of Union.

Although he praises the work of individuals such as the twelfth-century cleric Giraldus Cambrensis for his chronicling of Irish habits and customs, he implicitly suggests that years later Ireland remains as unknown now as she was then.