With increased moderator purity, the reactivity of the lattices increased by approximately 3—5 mk, while the CVR dropped by 0. With increased coolant purity, the reactivity of the lattices increases only very slightly, by 0. Impact of higher coolant purity on the exit burnup is only a slight increase, ranging from 0. F igure 9. F igure CVR vs. The increase in the Zr content and the associated decrease in the content of the heavier zirconium isotopes results in a significant increase in the lattice reactivity and exit burnup for both the LC and LC lattices.
The increase in the fuel exit burnup was quite significant. There is also a noticeable impact on the CVR. The first noticeable difference is that the low-power case has a significantly higher exit burnup The net economic impact of a power reduction has not been assessed in this study. As mentioned earlier, in addition to the base case, the LC was burned for 1, 2, and 3 dwell-time periods before implementing a zero-power period for 1 dwell-time period, followed by operating at full power until reaching the exit burnup.
After the zero-power period, the fuel reactivity increases by 71 mk and the U content increased by 0. Burnup-averaged k inf vs. Using a refueling scheme involving the partial burnup and temporary storage of fuel for 1 or more zero-power periods could be attractive, provided that the added costs due the increase in the number of refueling operations are offset by the reduction in fueling costs enabled by increased fuel burnup.
To implement a zero-power period refueling scheme in a MW e class PT-HWR, a special out-of-core storage facility would be required. Assuming a 2-bundle shift, a 1-period storage scheme would require temporary storage of one-sixth of a reactor core, and a 3-period storage scheme would require the temporary storage of half a reactor core. Lattice physics studies were carried out for thorium-based fuels that could potentially be implemented in PT-HWRs, for both blanket-type fuels made of pure ThO 2 used primarily for breeding U and also for fuels made of U,Th O 2 used for both generating power and breeding.
Sensitivity studies have investigated the performance improvements that could be obtained by using enlarged calandria tubes, higher purity heavy-water moderator and coolant, zirconium alloys and material enriched in Zr, and the use of an alternative refuelling scheme to store partially irradiated fuel outside of the core for 70 days or more to allow the Pa to decay to U, allowing an increase in the lattice reactivity and exit burnup.
For blanket-type fuels, results demonstrate that increasing the calandria tube size will only make small improvements in the production of U a 0. Significant gains in blanket fuel breeding can only be achieved through complete exclusion of moderator, but required design changes may be impractical.
Based on the results of this work, the following recommendations are provided for further studies. Lattice physics calculations that test the impact of the simultaneous implementation of increased moderator purity, coolant purity and Zr enrichment should be carried out.
Technologies for the enrichment of zirconium in Zr should be reviewed, investigated and assessed economically. Historically, some of the potentially attractive options for enriching Zr in Zr are through the use of atomic vapor laser isotope separation with ionized zirconium vapour [ 15 ], the use of a plasma centrifuge [ 16 ], or through the use of solvent extraction methods combined with photon reactions [ 17 ]. Multi-cell models of blanket-type lattices could be set up to test the environmental effects of adjacent seed channels and reflector cells and the impact on the neutron energy spectrum, reactivity, and fissile uranium production.
Full-core analyses of PT-HWRs with thorium-based fuels with 1 to 3 out-of-core storage periods, using time-dependent power histories in the lattice physics calculations that are consistent with the power histories determined from the core physics analyses should be carried out. Such analyses would make use of methods developed recently for accounting for the impact of power histories on thorium-based fuels [ 14 ].
These analyses would also need to determine the reduction in fueling costs due to higher fuel burnups, quantify the financial benefits associated with an increased safety margin through the reduction in the CVR, and evaluate the net impact on the levelized cost of electricity. An added cost savings may also occur for the modifications such as heavy water purity increase, Zr enrichment that lead to a burnup increase, if there is a reduction in the number of refueling operations. Blair Patrick Bromley , Jude Alexander.
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Advanced Search. All Journals Journal. In this paper Top of page 1. Introduction 2. Computational Tools 3. Description of Lattice Concepts 4. Sensitivity Studies Performed 5. Results 6. Conclusions 7. Lattice concepts. Sensitivity Studies Performed 4. Impact of expanded calandria tube radii Based on the experience gained from the light-water breeder reactor research program in the s [ 13 ], it is known that undermoderating a pure ThO 2 blanket fuel will harden the neutron energy spectrum, help promote direct fast-fission of Th, and suppress the thermal fission of U Impact of moderator and coolant purity Lattice physics calculations were performed with WIMS-AECL to evaluate the impact of using higher purity heavy water for the moderator Impact of temporary out-of-core fuel storage It is known that the reactivity and burnup of thorium-based fuels in a PT-HWR or any reactor can be increased by operating at a lower neutron flux and a lower specific power [ 9 , 14 ].
EP3128518A1 - Nuclear reactor and related method - Google Patents
Expanded calandria tube radii results. Moderator and coolant purity results. Impact of Zr enrichment in zirconium.
Annuaire IPHC. Kajita et A. Kerveno , et al. A, 51 12 Kerveno , A. Bacquias , C. Borcea, P. Dessagne , G. Henning , A. Negret, M. Nyman, A. Plompen, and G. Greg Henning , et al. Borcea, Ph. Henning , L. Mihailescu, A. Olacel, A.
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Negret, C. Plompen, M. Stanoiu Phys. Borcea, D.