Catriona Campbell, a creative tourism marketing specialist, also identifies this type of tourism with various activities and participation in them. It aims at introducing tourists with specific foreign types of arts, various authentic crafts and traditional food. Every tourist would be able to choose the most interesting activity. Campbell emphasises that tourists would be provided with an opportunity to live in high quality residential locations. This statement can be interpreted as follows: tourists would be accommodated together with a community that organises various seminars and practice, which would create immediate communication and mutual cooperation.
Living with the locals allows getting to know local culture fully, learning various crafts or just feeling like one is a part of the society [ 12 ]. Crispin Raymond [ 13 ] is one of the founders of creative tourism in New Zealand. He states that this type of tourism has existed since the beginning of tourism and that it has only acquired an individual title.
One of the most important features of creative tourism is informal communication. In order for the guests to become a part of the society, it is necessary to provide them with an opportunity to communicate in informal environment and create conditions that we live in. This would allow tourists to empathise and not be afraid of observing deeper traditions.
Crispin Raymond distinguishes informal participation as the most important aspect, which other authors do not emphasise [ 13 ]. The aim is to make tourists feel at home and become closer to the community through various seminars and experiences. It takes place annually on the last Saturday of September.
The festival includes entertainment and many activities for different segments of tourists. Moreover, the concept of creative tourism is inseparable from the concept of creative city because cities that invite such tourists organise various seminars, teach them how to apply theoretical knowledge practically and allow them integrating into the local culture and are called creative cities. Creative tourism could not do without creative development; therefore, the following two main ways of implementing creative tourism are distinguished:. The first way is a more traditional model of creative tourism because it emphasises active participation of tourists in creative activities.
More and more communities believe that their creative life and activities may make their city attractive for tourists even if they only want to look around instead of taking up activities. In the case of the second variant , creativity is used as a certain background only. In this case, tourist creativity is achieved in a less direct way than during participation in all activities. Here the aim is to create a common atmosphere which consists of the entire creative sector and environment.
In order to attract as many tourists as possible not only creative spread of information is important, but it is also claimed that all of these may be used as a certain specific bait for people. An example of such creative background is cuisine of a certain country as it may attract tourists who want to taste the food and know various cooking secrets rather than those who want to learn to cook.
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A large number of tourists bake bread in Anyksciai Lithuania. Creative tourism anticipates attracting tourists by means of various cultural values, aims at developing the creative community, promoting development of creative industries, and local economics would be significantly improved from income obtained from tourism. Source: created by the author based on reference [ 15 ]. Cultural tourism is oriented towards visiting famous structures, big events, and lively maintenance of culture. What is important here is to preserve what is more tangible and may bring more profit.
On the other hand, the resources of creative tourism are related with intangible values such as learning, gaining experience and development of traditions. Contrary to the cultural tourist, the creative tourist does not have to see impressive historical buildings, places included in the UNESCO lists, or big events; the aim of creative tourism is to develop all cities and countries creatively.
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Income and its distribution differ as well. Cultural tourism makes profit for the local economy through tourism taxes, fees for tickets to various museums, events and souvenirs; however, creative tourism steps over all these payments. In order for this type of tourism to exist, there is no need to collect various taxes and fees that go into the hands of officials and the country.
Creative tourism encourages the development of local communities, and tourists provide financial support and pay for services directly to the community.
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Cultural tourism includes the major part of export is carried out in the outgoing market where travel organisers and agencies sell their products. Only a small part of cultural tourism is carried out in the country [ 15 ]. Moreover, very little profit from all the travel products sold goes directly to local communities because major part of taxes and profit must be given to the country.
Contrary to cultural tourism, creative tourism directly contributes to improving local economy and the life of the community. Another problem that separates these two types of tourism is the main aim of tourists, i. The creative tourist travels because of motivation to see the country as well as learn something, participate in creative activities and communicate with local people.
All these help to separate a common tourist from a creative tourist. Cultural tourism is more oriented towards tangible values than creative tourism is. In this case, creative tourism is fully oriented towards intangible resources, their development and preservation; thus, tourists have different travelling goals. Some find it important to see the most famous buildings, beautiful nature, and others want to be included in the social life and learn from it. Creative tourism provides two-fold benefit, i.
Tangible benefit from creative tourism may be easily measured as expenses before, during and after a trip, and those expenses are related with the trip and objects to be visited. Scholars R. Ohridska-Olson and S. Ivanov analyse creative tourism and point out its tangible benefit as follows: cultural capital, market development, innovations, preservation of cultural heritage, endurance, visibility of the producer, creation of work places, and export [ 15 ]. It is important to note that not only creative tourism, but also cultural tourism is a branch of economy like other types of tourism; thus, it is an important part of GDP of all countries.
Ivanov have distinguished intangible benefit generated by creative tourism as well, i. Moreover, it creates immediate cooperation between people of different nationalities and forms a new market of tourism. All these factors allow contributing to the improvement of local economy through income to local residents, companies and municipality budgets by means of various taxes. The concept of cultural heritage has been developing over a long period of time.
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Throughout different periods, the concepts of monumental and resource culture heritage can be distinguished. The concept of monumental heritage can be traced back to the Renaissance concepts of monumento En. Since the twentieth century, the change of this concept has been influenced by a change of the concept of an ethnic country, the forming international society, international law, legislative processes, processes of industrialisation and the historical events of this century that have shown that cultural heritage is fragile and irreversible.
The second concept of cultural heritage formed several decades ago. According to this concept, heritage should not be identified with memorial signs because it plays a different role, i. The concept of resources is used to define this conception of heritage. According to this conception, if heritage is defined by resources of the past, then they are limited and irreversible, which is why they should be preserved and spread onto future generations.
The change of the conception of heritage was determined by various legal acts where the meaning and understanding of heritage underwent specification and explanation. Recently, heritage is more and more often seen as a process which objects undergo or as a marketing tool [ 17 ]. It is mostly valuable to include those objects into the lists of heritage that are seen as valuable by people; therefore, much depends on the outlook of people and their disposition. According to the UNESCO classification of heritage, there are seven main categories of heritage : nature , landscape , monuments , artefacts , activity , people and locations.
None of these categories are perfectly defined because there are many objects of heritage that could be attributed to several categories. One of them is cultural heritage. According to the Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Heritage of New Zealand, cultural heritage includes regions, landscape and features, structures, constructions and gardens, archaeological and traditional locations, sacred places and monuments that have long-term value and can be legally assessed, that teach people about the past and the culture of those who lived before, that give context to the identity of the society according to which people relate themselves to the world and to those who lived in the past, that provide the modern world with diversity and contrast and are a measure according to which people can compare modern achievements [ 18 ].
According to this convention, tangible cultural heritage stands for intangible objects that remain from the past and related locations; they have a historical, archaeological, mythological, memorial, religious, architectural, urban, artistic and scientific value Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage Tangible cultural heritage includes ensembles isolated or related groups of buildings whose architecture also relates to the landscape , well-known places creations of human beings and nature and monuments divided further into the heritage of fine arts, archaeology and architecture which is especially important when analysing the aspects of the applicability of tangible cultural heritage.