Engineering rock blasting operations

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The result of rock blasting is often known as a rock cut. Drilling and blasting currently utilizes many different varieties of explosives with different compositions and performance properties.


Higher velocity explosives are used for relatively hard rock in order to shatter and break the rock, while low velocity explosives are used in soft rocks to generate more gas pressure and a greater heaving effect. For instance, an early 20th-century blasting manual compared the effects of black powder to that of a wedge, and dynamite to that of a hammer.

Before the advent of tunnel boring machines TBMs , drilling and blasting was the only economical way of excavating long tunnels through hard rock, where digging is not possible. The decision whether to construct a tunnel using a TBM or using a drill and blast method includes a number of factors. Tunnel length is a key issue that needs to be addressed because large TBMs for a rock tunnel have a high capital cost, but because they are usually quicker than a drill and blast tunnel the price per metre of tunnel is lower.

Managing ground conditions can also have a significant effect on the choice with different methods suited to different hazards in the ground. The innovation spread quickly throughout Europe and the Americas. The standard method for blasting rocks was to drill a hole to a considerable depth and deposit a charge of gunpowder at the further end of the hole and then fill the remainder of the hole with clay or some other soft mineral substance, well rammed, to make it as tight as possible.

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A wire laid in the hole during this process was then removed and replaced with a train of gunpowder. This train was ignited by a slow match , often consisting simply of brown paper smeared with grease, intended to burn long enough to allow the person who fires it enough time to reach a place of safety.

The uncertainty of this method led to many accidents and various measures were introduced to improve safety for those involved. One was replacing the iron wire, by which the passage for the gunpowder is formed, with one of copper. Another was the use of a safety fuse.


This consisted of small train of gunpowder inserted in a water-proof cord, which burns at a steady and uniform rate. This in turn was later replaced by a long piece of wire that was used to deliver an electric charge to ignite the explosive. The first to use this method for underwater blasting was Charles Pasley who employed it in to break up the wreck of the British warship HMS Royal George which had become a shipping hazard at Spithead. Calculation of parameters of drilling and blasting operations for horizontal and inclined working.

The calculation of construction straight prismatic cut. Modern Issues of Education and Science. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management. Article Tools Print this article. Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Supplementary files.

Engineering Rock Blasting Operations

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Aim and Scope. Publication Ethics. User Username Password Remember me. Information for Author. Author Guidelines. Download Template. Keywords acid soil agroforestry ameliorant bacteria biochar biofertilizer bioremediation compost dry land heavy metals land degradation maize mercury mining organic fertilizer organic matter phytoremediation revegetation soil quality soybean sweet potato. A brief history of the development of blasting and the modern theory of rock breaking. Land Manage.

Engineering rock blasting operations / by Sushil Bhandari. - Version details - Trove

Abstract The article is devoted to the task today to improve the effectiveness of blasting during construction of horizontal and inclined mine excavations. Keywords calculation methodology, crushed zon, explosive,fracturing zone, the history of mining. Full Text: PDF. References Agrawal, J. Apostol, T.

Drilling and blasting

The tunnel of Samos. Engineering and Science 1: October Meyers, S.

Peoples China Journal. No14, pp.

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